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Correspondence to: Correspondence: Miyako Takaki, Ph D.
Department of Molecular Pathology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521, Japan.
Possible neural stem cell markers, anti-distal less homeobox 2 (DLX2)- and p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR)-positive cells, and NF-positive cells were also examined during the same time period.
We also developed a spontaneously contracting gut differentiated from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (ES gut) using an embryoid body (EB)In the small intestine in H-line: Thy1 promoter green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice, we obtained clear 3-dimensional in vivo imaging of enteric neurons that were newly generated through oral application of MOS after gut transection and anastomosis.
The neural circuit insult was performed in guinea pigs and rats by rectal transection and anastomosis.
A 5-HTR-agonist, mosapride citrate (MOS) applied orally and locally at the anastomotic site for 2 weeks promoted the regeneration of the impaired neural circuit or the recovery of the distal gut reflex.
Molecules controlling this process, including glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptor RET, endothelin-3 (EDN3) and its receptor endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB), and transcription factors such as sex determining region Y-box10 and paired-like homeobox 2b, are required for ENS development in humans.
Understanding of ENS development is still a work in progress.
Several neurocristopathies involve a deficit of NC-derived cells, raising the possibility of stem cell therapy.These novel actions by MOS were inhibited by specific 5-HTR promotes reconstruction of an enteric neural circuit that involves possibly neural stem cells.We also succeeded in forming dense enteric neural networks by MOS in a gut differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells.The 5-HT biosynthesis depends on tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) in EC cells and on TPH2 in neurons; therefore, deletion of TPH2, but not TPH1, decreased myenteric neuronal density and proportions of dopaminergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons.Addition of 5-HT to cultures of isolated enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCDCs) promoted total and dopaminergic neuronal development.
However, neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs) harvested from the neural tube of embryonic rats can differentiate into NCSCs, which in turn generate peripheral nervous system derivatives.